ISO 21448 SOTIF Primary Training

Course Identifier:  e14-011

This 1-day course aims to give the initial insights about the Safety of The Intended Functionality (SOTIF) according to ISO 21484. The safety of road vehicles during their operation phase is of paramount concern for the road vehicles industry. Recent years have seen a huge increase in the number of advanced functionalities included in vehicles. These rely on sensing, processing of complex algorithms and actuation implemented by electrical and/or electronic (E/E) systems.

An acceptable level of safety for road vehicles requires the avoidance of unreasonable risk caused by every hazard associated with the intended functionality and its implementation, especially those not due to failures, e.g. due to performance limitations. ISO 26262-1 defines the vehicle safety as the absence of unreasonable risks that arise from malfunctions of the E/E system. ISO 26262-3 specifies a Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment to determine vehicle level hazards. This evaluates the potential risks due to malfunctioning behaviour of the item and enables the definition of top-level safety requirements, i.e. the safety goals, necessary to mitigate the risks. The other parts of the ISO 26262 series provide requirements and recommendations to avoid and control random hardware failures and systematic failures that could violate safety goals.

For some systems, which rely on sensing the external or internal environment, there can be potentially hazardous behaviour caused by the intended functionality or performance limitation of a system that is free from the faults addressed in the ISO 26262 series. Examples of such limitations include:

  • The inability of the function to correctly comprehend the situation and operate safely; this also includes functions that use machine learning algorithms;
  • Insufficient robustness of the function with respect to sensor input variations or diverse environmental conditions.

The absence of unreasonable risk due to these potentially hazardous behaviours related to such limitations is defined as the safety of the intended functionality (SOTIF). Functional safety (addressed by the ISO 26262 series) and SOTIF are distinct and complementary aspects of safety

This course provides a general overview on the structure and principle of the standard and its requirements.

This course will be provided on demand, please request more information by contacting our head of departement


Day 1 – ISO 21448 SOTIF 

  1. Introduction to SOTIF ISO 21484 and its scope
  2. Rigor of standards and State of the art
  3. SOTIF vs ISO 26262
  4. Overview and organization of activities in the development process
  5. Function, system specification and design (intended functionality content)
  6. Identification and Evaluation of hazards caused by the intended functionality
  7. Identification and evaluation of performance limitations and potential triggering conditions
  8. Functional modifications to reduce SOTIF related risks
  9. Definition of the verification and validation strategy
  10. Evaluate known hazardous scenarios (Area 2)
  11. Evaluate unknown hazardous scenarios (Area 3)
  12. Methodology and criteria for SOTIF release

Please find our additional resources below: